3D modeling techniques are used to create a computerized replica of any real life object or to design objects in the virtual world. The prime benefit of utilizing this technique is to obtain a comprehensive 3D visualization of the planned objects. Modeling process allows practitioners to perform a detail inspection of the created 3D models from all dimensional perspectives. It enables them to check whether the applied design will be suitable for the product manufacturing or any further modifications are needed to make the model accurate.
3D modeling process can be performed in several ways, they are:
- Curve modeling – In this modeling technique type, a 3D model is created to represent its curved surface as well as the weighted control points that reside on the curved surfaces. These weighted control points are used to control the surface curves. Curves of a surface can be further classified as Spline, NURBS or non-uniform rational B-spline, Geometric Primitives and Patch.
- Polygonal modeling – In polygonal modeling process, 3D models are created by joining a number of vertices through line segments in any 3D coordinated system. These points together can form a shape of any polygon in 3D space. So, in this modeling, the surfaces of a virtual object are represented by using polygon. Nowadays, polygonal modeling is preferably used over the others because polygonal 3D models can be rendered and modified easily.
Some common polygonal meshes that are created by using polygonal modeling are triangles, cubes, pyramids, squares, spheres, cylinders, etc. This modeling can be of various types such as box modeling, inflation modeling, edge/contour modeling etc.
- Procedural modeling – 3D models and textures in Procedural modeling are generated by a set of rules. In this modeling, scenes are generated by using user defined algorithms. Some common procedural modeling techniques are L-systems, fractals and generative modeling. This modeling is used to create models for trees, foliage, etc.
- Image based modeling – In image based modeling technique, 3D models are generated from a set of two dimensional image of a scene.
- Digital Sculpting – This modeling technique is also known by two other names i.e. Sculpt Modeling and 3D Sculpting. It is a relatively new method and has emerged as one of the most popular modeling types. By using this technique, a digitized model is created which looks like the objects that are made by using real life substances such as clay. In 3D sculpting, various actions like push, pull, grab, pinch, smooth are manipulated on the digitized objects by using software tools and this makes the 3D models quite accurately represent real life sculptures.
3D modeling is popularly used across a myriad of industries, like:
- Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
- Media and Entertainment
- Advertising and Marketing
- Manufacturing and Product Design
- Government and Military
- Printing and Publishing
- Geology and Science
3D computerized modeling process helps to make an object error free. So, it assists in improving quality, reducing time and cost. It has overcome all the drawbacks of manual dummy model making method. It provides flexibilities to Modelers in terms of implementing necessary changes in any kind of design models.